The Bank of England’s policy decision is due out at 12GMT on Thursday. The question of whether the Bank will raise interest rates today for the first time since the pandemic is on every trader’s and financial analyst’s mind. The Bank is in a difficult position as it has created uncertainty about its intention to raise interest rates and whether now is the appropriate time.

Governor Andrew Bailey’s difficult position

For many analysts, the Governor of the Bank of England, Andrew Bailey, seems to have made a mistake by exaggerating the prospects of an interest rate rise. City traders are now expecting an interest rate rise and the governor will be criticised today whatever happens. If there is an interest rate hike, it will appear that the Governor was forced to deliver it so he wouldn’t disappoint markets. On the other hand, if rates do not rise, he will be blamed for signalling that interest rates were going to rise. If rates remain unchanged, and inflation pressures prove to be temporary, then this will be the least bad alternative.

Previous Monetary Policy Committee meeting

In the last MPC meeting in September, all 9 members voted to keep rates at their current level of 0.1% as heightened global cost pressures were said to be temporary. Although nothing has changed since September, a possible reason to raise rates would be to control inflation. However, economists have pointed out that this is unnecessary as inflation goes up temporarily following events such as the pandemic but eventually things return to normal.

Rate hike could push household costs higher

A rate hike will hurt households which are already struggling with rising energy costs and could push up the cost of borrowing on credit and increase mortgage costs for those who do not have a fixed rate. With supply chain problems also affecting growth, a rate rise could also weaken economic recovery.

Some of the reasons that inflation has been higher, such as rising gas prices and raw material shortages are temporary, so it will be damaging to raise interest rates early, as some economists have argued.

Thomas Pugh, economist for RSM UK, also believes the Bank will wait and not hike today: “But at 63% probability, this is still a close call. We expect the vote to be 5v4 in favour of leaving interest rates at 0.1%. This might imply a glass half-empty/half-full policy of keeping the BoE rate at near-zero for another MPC meeting, or two, with forward guidance preparing the markets for a rate hike in December or early 2022.”

How will the pound react?

A cautious Bank that announces a rate hike in November could push the pound lower, as markets are expecting higher rates over the course of 2022. Other analysts also support the view that the pound might weaken as possibly the Bank will find it difficult to satisfy market expectations.

With the market already expecting rates to rise towards 0.50% by year end, any hawkish surprises from the Bank will be limited so the potential for the pound to rise further will also be limited.

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The pound has dropped against the euro and the US dollar ahead of Thursday's Bank of England policy meeting as investors have begun readjusting their positions.

The Bank of England will deliver its latest policy decision alongside the quarterly Monetary Policy Report and expectations for a rate rise are high.

The pound has appreciated over recent weeks on expectations that the Bank of England will push the bank rate higher by 15 basis points to 0.25%. However, the drop at the beginning of the week suggests that markets are divided about the Bank of England’s interest rate decision, as many are now expecting a delay to the rate hike or a more cautious tone from the bank.

Bank of England interest rate hike

ING economists expect a 15bp rate hike, but they believe the bank will remain cautious, as they may lower their medium-term inflation forecasts and remain divided about a rate hike. Any surprising move by the bank will push the pound lower. While members of the Bank have highlighted the need to act as inflationary pressures rise, the likelihood of a November hike has now fallen while the likelihood of a December rise has risen. This has affected the pound, which has underperformed the last few days.

The Chicago Mercantile Exchange’s measure of interest rate futures, known as BoE Watch, has noted that the possibility of a rate rise in the UK this week is 100%.

Confusion among investors

Contradictory data has confused investors over which direction the central bank will go. Financial markets show that many investors are anticipating a hike, while City economists expect rates to remain at historic lows. The views of economists are in line with MPC members Silvana Tenreyro and Catherine Mann, who have warned that an interest rate rise could threaten economic recovery which is already slowing down.

Governor Andrew Bailey, chief economist at the Bank of England Huw Pill and former Citibank economist Michael Saunders, have all highlighted the importance of acting to control inflation. Bailey has characteristically stated that the bank “will have to act and must do so if we see a risk, particularly to medium-term inflation.” Deputy governor Sir Dave Ramsden is also one of the hawkish members and supports raising rates from their historic lows. If four members of the committee are in favour of higher rates, then one more member is needed to succeed. It will be interesting to see what Deputy governor, Ben Broadbent, will vote as he has never gone against the governor in his seven years on the Monetary Policy Committee.

Deutsche bank economists also believe that the BoE would deliver its first rate hike of 0.15% and that the MPC will end its QE programme a month earlier by cutting £20bn from QE.

Others have noted that Bailey would want to avoid disappointing markets, even though a rate hike was yet not a solid reality.

The confusion about what decision the Bank will make on Thursday’s meeting is largely related to the wide range of contradictory views by various analysts and economists.

 

Pound reaction

Sterling’s performance will also depend on the inflation forecasts of the Bank's Monetary Policy Report.

If the Bank proceeds to raise rates twice, the Bank Rate will go up to 0.50% over the next 3 months, which will boost the pound.

Markets expect a number of rate hikes in 2022 which would take the Bank Rate to 1.00%, but economists have noted that they will be disappointed.

Whatever the pound’s reaction ahead of Thursday, it will set the tone in the following days, so if it remains under pressure then markets might turn pessimistic.

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The pound fell following disappointing retail sales and a drop in the GfK Consumer Confidence survey, but reversed losses after the release of better-than-expected Preliminary PMI data for October.

PMI

The Markit/CIPS Manufacturing PMI for October came at 57.7, higher than the expected 55.8. The Services PMI also came at 58, higher than the 54.5 forecast and September’s reading of 55.4. The Composite PMI came in at 56.8, also above the forecast of 54 and the previous month's 54. IHS Markit’s Chief Business Economist Chris Williamson said that the flash PMI data was higher than the average of 54.0 before the pandemic and showed that the GDP grew each quarter 0.7%.

Markit reported that activity increased as the private sector growth reached a three-month high, with strong business and consumer spending. Service providers were the main driver behind the recovery. Employment numbers also rose as improved customer demand and confidence about the business outlook strengthened. Pressures from higher costs and staff shortages will however persist.

Retail Sales

Earlier on Friday, the ONS reported that UK retail sales fell in September. The pound dropped following the disappointing news, as it was shown that the economic slowdown might be worse than expected. Retail sales for September were down 2.6% year-on-year, lower than the expected 1.7%.

Even as we move into the Christmas period, higher gas prices will keep operating costs high and reduce consumer spending power.

November interest rate hike

The pound will also be at risk from the Bank of England disappointing markets and not proceeding as expected with the interest rate hikes. The markets now see a November interest rate hike (from 0.1% to 0.25%), as a 56% possibility, which is down from 90% earlier this week, after Bank of England governor Andrew Bailey suggested the BoE will have to act to control inflationary pressures.

BoE chief economist Huw Pill told the Financial Times that the Bank would have a "live" decision to make at its next meeting on the 4 November. While he declined to say how he would vote at the Bank’s meeting next month, he said "it is finely balanced": "I think November is live."

The UK interest rate has been at a historic low of 0.1% since March 2020. The view that November’s meeting is “finely balanced” may have encouraged traders to reconsider the odds of action next month.

GfK Consumer Confidence survey

Consumer confidence was also down in October, at its lowest since February. Consumers are concerned with the future of the economy. The possibility of a cold winter coming while dealing with fuel and food shortages, Brexit and surging inflation, as well as interest rates affecting the cost of borrowing, not to mention Covid-19 cases rising, does not sound especially promising. The Petrol Retailers Association (PRA) has said that all-time highs seen in April 2012 of 142p per litre for petrol and 148p for diesel will be surpassed by the end of October. Average prices for petrol and diesel had reached 141.35p and 144.84p respectively on Tuesday, according to Experian Catalist UK.

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With Bank of England policymakers signalling that the central bank is moving towards an early interest rate hike, traders have been trying to figure out what this means for the pound. Economists and forex analysts have offered both positive and negative comments about the bank’s intention to raise interest rates, with other analysts turning neutral. 

Interest rate rise could hurt the pound

Markets are now expecting the BoE to raise interest rates in November, with further rates to follow by the end of 2022. However, the link between higher interest rates and a stronger currency has been broken, unfortunately, due to the current energy crisis, higher costs and a struggling economy due to the pandemic. Within this environment, many analysts are concerned that an early rate hike will actually create more problems and that it could be reversed within two years, creating further uncertainty for the currency.  

Jane Foley, head of foreign-exchange strategy at Rabobank, said that “There is a lot of uncertainty,” in London. “It’s easy to argue that rates going up will strengthen the pound. But the risk of a policy mistake means the BOE could hike soon but then won’t be able to follow through” with more tightening.

Bank of England Policy Mistake?

Markets are unsure about the outlook for the pound, with institutional fund managers limiting their trades against the pound and others betting for the pound to strengthen. For some analysts, the BoE tightening will provide some support for the currency but, for others, the lack of economic growth will eventually reverse any gains.

Additionally, further challenges remain. Brexit tensions between the UK and the European Union over Northern Ireland could escalate into a trade war, but Prime Minister Boris Johnson has offer assurances that solutions will be delivered within the week.  

Despite the Bank of England’s Governor Andrew Bailey’s reassuring comments that the Bank will do what it takes as inflationary pressures rise, traders are concerned about the pound outlook in the longer term.

Pound remains “insensitive” to UK rate expectations

While many foreign exchange analysts have voiced their concerns about the pound outlook if the Bank of England proceeds to an early set of interest rate rises, HSBC strategists believe the pound is “insensitive to the continued hawkish drift in UK rate expectations.” Even if inflation falls at the end of 2022 and there is no need to raise rates higher on a long-term basis, HSBC says there is more to the pound than an automatic fixation on the BoE.

Indeed, the pound is not driven solely by the desire of the Bank of England to raise or not rates. A they argue, the pound’s performance has been mainly determined by global forces. It rises against the euro and US dollar on positive investor sentiment and falls when global markets struggle. As investors recently digested global concerns about the pandemic and the energy crisis, buying interest for the pound has returned, pushing Sterling higher.

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UK inflation has fallen slightly but remains above the Bank of England’s target. According to data from the Office for National Statistics (ONS), UK CPI inflation eased slightly to 3.1% in September, from 3.2% in August—the highest in nine years.

The pound softened on Wednesday morning following the inflation data, as analysts expected the September reading to remain at 3.2%.

The slowdown is mostly due to the effects of lower prices of dining out last month compared to last September, when prices rose following the end of the Eat Out to Help Out scheme.

BoE

The data comes after Bank of England Governor Andrew Bailey said that the central bank will have to act to ease inflationary pressures – raising expectations for earlier rate hikes. According to economists, the bank’s task is a difficult one, as it expects inflation to reach 4% in the current quarter, with higher interest rates expected to ease it. However, the economy is struggling with higher costs and rising commodity prices, which interest rates have no power over.

Inflationary pressures rise

The cost of UK company goods and services continued to rise last month, affected by the supply chain crisis. Output price inflation rose to 6.7% per year in September, from 6% in August. Inflationary pressures are building in the economy as producers increased their prices, passing on costs to consumers. Companies reported that input prices increased by 11.4% year-on-year in September. Manufacturers faced commodity costs and transport costs due to shipping issues and a shortage in lorry drivers.

Economists: inflation is temporary

Economists are warning that September’s fall in inflation will be temporary. Costs rose due to supply issues and the higher energy price cap. The persistent supply-chain disruptions and energy price effects could push inflation higher above 4% early next year.

Senior economist at Royal London Asset Management Melanie Baker, expects more inflation. He warned that energy bills could push consumer price inflation further, which will reduce real income growth for many and add to some of the economic challenges in 2022.

Paul Dales of Capital Economics predicts inflation to reach 5% next April, when Ofgem hikes the energy price cap again. He noted: “However, this feels a bit like the lull before the storm as the 12% rise in utility prices on 1st October will probably lift CPI inflation to around 3.8% in October. And we think inflation could then climb to around 5.0% in April next year due to a further rise in utility prices and the upward influence from global/domestic product shortages. With underlying wage growth and inflation expectations rising, the BoE is concerned that higher inflation will become embedded in the system. That’s why it become much keener to raise interest rates.”

Dales explained that he doesn’t expect interest rates to be raised as far as 1.00% by the end of next year, since higher inflation will weaken the outlook for activity and with supply shortages easing, inflation will eventually fall to around 2% by the end of next year.

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Sterling reached a 20-month high against the euro on Monday after Bank of England Governor Andrew Bailey sent another signal that the central bank is heading towards raising interest rates as inflation risks rise. On Tuesday, the British currency held on to its near 20-month high gains against the euro and has reached a new one-month high against the US dollar. The main factor supporting the pound is expectations the BoE will raise rates, with investors speculating on a rise to 0.25% by December, or even earlier by November. Traders will be focusing on the release of the UK CPI inflation data for September on Wednesday and Friday’s PMI data for further clues.

Despite the pound’s excellent performance, some foreign exchange analysts are wondering whether the recent gains can be sustained in the long term.  

Warnings

Many economists and analysts have warned that the Bank of England’s intention to return interest rates to pre-pandemic levels could be a huge mistake that will impact on economic growth and push costs higher for households that are already under pressure. Higher interest rates, combined with zero growth and high inflation will hurt both the economy and the pound.

Others have noted that the pound won’t be supported for a long time by the Bank of England’s higher interest rates due to persisting supply chain issues and a struggling labour market.

Former Bank of England Monetary Policy Committee Member, David Blanchflower, said that raising rates very soon will be a disaster and “foolish.” He told BBC Radio 4 that interest rates are at 0.1% but economists warn that inflation could peak at 6.0%. Former MPC member Andrew Sentance laughed at Danny Blanchflower’s comments saying that he did not understand monetary policy.  With economists being torn about the prospect of higher interest rates, it is not surprising that there are so many differing views. However, markets have priced in a rate hike and expectations remain solid that an interest rate hike is possible in November.

Bank of England has been Misunderstood?

At the same time, analysts argue that the BoE Governor’s recent comments have been misunderstood and that a November rate rise is unlikely. Bailey has stated that the Bank will act if there are inflation risks in the medium-term and that the Monetary Policy Committee will wait and see until December when labour market data is available.

Also, for some analysts, the subsequent rate hikes being priced in by investors are a bit extreme as possibly two rates maximum by the end of 2022 sounds more reasonable. However, any recent hike expectations being priced out could also negatively impact on the pound.

Others have argued that, if indeed early interest rate hikes will be disastrous to the economy, then pricing out these rate hikes will possibly support the pound.  With so many different arguments, it is not yet clear how the pound will react. Some commentators have even gone as far as to suggest that the pound will fall whatever happens. For example, if the BoE ends up being more dovish and does not raise interest rates, it will end up disappointing markets. On the other hand, if it does deliver early rate hikes it might end up making a policy mistake. Nonetheless, Friday’s PMI data might offer further guidance: if it comes stronger than expected then the pound will strengthen and so will the case for raising interest rates.

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The pound is not in any crisis, Pound Sterling Live argued this morning, citing a range of media and newspapers that continue to claim that the pound is in trouble. There are potential dangers of course, especially from a return of Brexit anxieties, but there are also supportive factors such as the ongoing economic recovery and the prospect of an early Bank of England interest rate rise in late-2021/early-2022. Analysts at Pound Sterling Live also noted that a mixed set of views on the outlook of a currency is a common thing and does not signify a serious concern.

Pound concerns

At the same time, Bloomberg, has warned that the pound is going to fall, and said that investors are betting against the pound as they are worried that Bank of England’s efforts to reduce inflation would hurt consumer sentiment and the growth outlook.

Traders have increased their bets against the pound, as they expect the currency to fall at the fastest rate in more than two years. Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce, RBC Europe Ltd., and Société Générale SA strategists are also expecting the pound to fall to levels last seen in late 2020. Bloomberg highlighted that sentiment was at its most bearish in seven months, as traders are not optimistic on the pound. 

The UK’s high inflation and low growth are also reasons for concern for Bank of America strategists who said “any strength in the pound is an opportunity to sell.” Analysts are concerned that inflation and the end of the furlough scheme will influence real incomes. Governor of the Bank of England Andrew Bailey warned of a potentially “very damaging” inflation period unless the Bank acts accordingly. By tightening its policy earlier, the Bank could also tighten household spending and increase mortgage payments, undermining the UK’s recovery.

Strategists for RBC have also noted that higher interest rates could push the pound lower, and many are concerned that if the Bank moves too fast, there will be a squeeze in real incomes, which is already evident due to high energy prices and tighter fiscal policy.

Pound not in crisis

While the pound to dollar rate might be weaker, the drop is not demonstrating a “chaotic” fall, Pound Sterling Live analysts have suggested. They have criticised different analysts who have linked supply chain issues to the UK’s performance. While such problems are real, Pound Sterling Live analysts have argued that such issues are not specific to the UK, and they pointed to the US and similar supply chain issues.  In regard to the fuel crisis, they criticised panic-buying and motorists who have run to fuel stations. They have also pointed out that the connection of the pound to emerging market currencies is false, as a lot of the weakness of the pound can be blamed to a stronger US dollar. As they say, many investors have mistakenly taken a very negative stance towards the pound, arguing that there are tougher times ahead and the macro-outlook for the pound is deteriorating.

The dollar’s safe-haven status and its higher demand in times of global economic nervousness has helped elevate it at the expense of the pound.  Pound Sterling Live has also clarified that the mixed range of forecasts offered by major financial institutions is not indicative of a crisis but is natural among other currencies. Risks of course remain, but they argue that the negative pound outlook is overstated.

 

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The pound could rise against the euro due to the Bank of England’s optimistic stance as interest rates are now expected to rise earlier than previously anticipated. The pound was also pushed higher as traders looking for a good offer bought a cheaper pound. According to analysts, the pound could reach new highs by the end of this year.

Bank of England and Rate hike

While last week, the pound fell due to inflationary concerns, over the weekend it was higher. With limited economic data the week ahead, the pound will be likely influenced by more news on the fuel crisis, but analysts expect it to remain supported on BoE’s interest rate prospects. The Office for National Statistics has also upgraded its second quarter GDP growth forecast from 4.8% to 5.4%. With the Monetary Policy Committee of the BoE expected to raise the bank rate to 0.25% in May and one more time in 12 months, markets are optimistic.

In a speech that was given to the Society of Professional Economists annual dinner, the Governor of the Bank of England said: “All of us believe that there will need to be some modest tightening of policy to be consistent with meeting the inflation target sustainably over the medium term. Recent evidence appears to have strengthened that case, but there remain substantial uncertainties and we are monitoring the situation closely. The BoE policymakers would need to see clear evidence that the labour market is thriving and employment activity is back to normal levels before taking any action.

Labour market possible scenarios

The BoE governor in his speech, outlined three potential scenarios for the labour market, highlighting the uncertainties ahead, as each of these could influence growth, inflation and monetary policy in different ways. The first scenario revolves around the furlough scheme and how after the furloughed workers return to their old jobs, we are still left with an excess of job vacancies. If these vacancies are linked with shortages of workers in particular sectors, this could push wages higher. This situation could raise the rate of unemployment consistent with stable wage growth. In a second scenario, where demand rises over time, vacancies and unemployment could fall. In the third possible explanation, advertised vacancies could be higher, but some of these could turn out not to be jobs as employers change their mind or postpone hiring.

Tightening monetary policy and bank rate

Governor Bailey has characteristically said that despite uncertainty, the stimulus program will need to unwind, and this will be coupled with an increase in the bank rate. He said: “For most members of the MPC, the outlook for the labour market – as I described earlier – is highly uncertain and to some degree likely to be resolved in fairly short order, and this justified a wait and see approach on policy in view of the continuing belief that higher inflation will be temporary. Within this view, some members put more emphasis on the continuing shortfall in the level of GDP relative to pre-Covid, while others emphasised the continuing direction of travel towards closing that gap and the evidence of cost pressures accompanying the closing. But all of this group were of the view that the stimulus to monetary policy enacted in response to Covid would need to start to unwind at some point, that unwind should be enacted by an increase in Bank Rate, and if appropriate would not need to wait for the end of the current asset purchase programme.”

This means that the Bank is expected to normalise its policy in early 2022 which could support the pound. Analysts view the pound’s recent weakness as temporary and expect it to strengthen in the long-term.

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The pound strengthened against the euro, due to positive market sentiment as a result of the intense and ongoing vaccination rollout programme. Goldman Sachs has speculated that the pound could even rise further against the euro.

Rishi Sunak’s Budget announcement boosts sentiment

Following the budget announcement, the Wall Street investment bank told its clients to trade in Sterling as the UK economy is expected to grow in the coming months.  UK Chancellor Rishi Sunak’s budget announcement last Wednesday revealed spending and taxation plans that were better than expected. Sunak announced that an additional £65 billion will be provided for spending, grants and tax breaks with the total additional spending and benefits reaching £352 billion. "The UK economy is well-positioned for the coming recovery," Goldman Sachs’ Zach Pandl said. "The support program laid out by the government surprised consensus expectations to the upside, and included a number of economic incentives aimed at medium-term investment." Most economists believe that supporting the economy generously during the covid crisis will help the economy grow stronger faster and avoid any long-term negative effects.  

Vaccination programme also offers support to pound

Goldman Sachs’ economist Pandl also noted that the UK’s vaccination programme has helped the economy. He said: "Solid household and business balance sheets should soon translate into robust growth, as the UK’s strategy of prioritising getting more people vaccinated with a single dose appears to be paying dividends. We are therefore keeping open the short EUR/GBP component of our long GBP/CHF cross trade.”

Britain has outperformed on its vaccination programme, especially when compared to other European countries, with more than 21 million people having received the first dose of a Covid-19 vaccine.

UK business confidence hits 12-month high

The UK’s fast vaccination programme has also had a positive effect on businesses’ confidence. According to the latest Business Trends report from accountancy and business advisory firm BDO LLP, service sector confidence jumped in February to its highest level since the pandemic began.

BDO’s Services Optimism Index rose to 94.13 in February from 86.60 in January, back towards the long-term average of 100. This is the highest reading in 12 months for the survey, which covers a a wide range of industries from retail and hospitality to professional services.

Also, according to polling firm YouGov, British consumer confidence has risen to its highest level since the coronavirus pandemic started, according to polling firm YouGov. YouGov reported that  consumer confidence rose to 105.4, driven by expectations for house prices, business activity, and household finances over 2022.

The governor of the Bank of England, Andrew Bailey, has also expressed optimism about the economy but also cautioned for unrealistic expectations, as life will not return to pre-Covid levels. He noted that there is a “growing sense” of economic optimism building. He said that Covid has hurt demand and supply which some of the structural changes in the last year will not really change.

Bailey said: “The best we can say is that how the output gap develops in the recovery from Covid will depend on the net effect of the two [demand and supply], both of which will need to move by more than in normal recoveries. There is another element to this part of the story which is hard to assess at present, namely to what extent the more structural changes we have seen during the Covid crisis will persist, and what effect they will have on the recovery? In general, however, economists remain optimistic and the pounds recent surge owes a lot to the government’s successful vaccination programme.

 

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Sterling rose to an eight-month high due to dollar weakness and after Federal Reserve Chairman Jerome Powell said on Thursday that the Fed will tolerate inflation above 2.0%. This gave investors hope that the Fed will not try and control economic growth, something that could hurt the US dollar in the near future. On the other hand, on Friday, after Bank of England Governor Andrew Bailey’s speech, the pound remained unmoved. Both Bailey and Powell gave their speeches at the Jackson Hole central bank symposium which was held online this year rather than at the usual ski resort in Wyoming.

Fed’s decision marks a significant shift in monetary policy

The Federal Reserve has approved a significant change in the way it sets its interest rates by abandoning the usual practice of raising them to control higher inflation, something that will leave US borrowing costs extremely low. By signalling that it wants inflation to rise moderately above its 2% target, the Fed confirmed that inflation targeting in a world of lower interest rates is a thing of the past.

Andrew Bailey’s speech

On Friday, the Governor of the BoE delivered his keynote address to fellow central bankers online and not from the actual ski resort in the Grand Tetons where the conference was traditionally organised since 1982.

In his speech, Bailey said that central banks have a lot of strength to use quantitative easing to manage crises, such as Covid-19. As he noted characteristically, “Go big (and fast) or go home.”

The Bank of England governor did not provide details over short-term policy or on the UK economic situation, but he did reassure the financial community that the Bank will be able to deal with future crises: “We are not out of firepower by any means, and to be honest it looks from today’s vantage point that we were too cautious about our remaining firepower pre-Covid. But, hindsight is a wonderful thing when you have it.”

He also said that the Bank won’t seek to restrict monetary policy until there is significant economic progress: “The committee does not intend to tighten monetary policy until there is clear evidence that significant progress is being made in eliminating spare capacity and achieving the 2% inflation target sustainably. This important step is intended to ensure monetary conditions do not tighten prematurely when there are some initial signs of an economic recovery.”

According to Bailey, QE will be “more long-lived” and that the Bank has the power to fight recessions. In regard to Jerome Powell’s comments from yesterday, Bailey said that these suggest that flexibility can be useful for monetary policy and that a different exchange rate environment could justify different approaches.

The Bank of England increased quantitative easing by £745 billion in June, and in March it cut its main interest rate to a record low 0.1%. A paper with the Bank’s conclusions will be published alongside Bailey’s speech.

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