The pound was up against the euro on Wednesday, strengthened by higher UK bond yields and expectations of an earlier interest rate hike by the Bank of England. Sterling rose to a three-week high against the euro yesterday, as traders returned their attention to the prospect of interest rate hikes in Britain. The pound was down last week, due to rising inflation concerns, but it has now recovered.

Sterling’s recovery is mainly due to the prospect of the BoE raising interest rates sooner than expected, but analysts have commented that the pound should have risen even higher especially because of the important difference between the European and UK central banks. While the BoE has clearly stated its intention for an earlier rate hike, the European Central Bank has no plans to raise rates soon. Economists have warned that caution should be exercised though, as the pound’s gains might not be long-lived. It is still unclear whether the BoE will proceed to raise interest rates while the UK is facing ongoing supply problems.


On Tuesday, British Prime Minister Boris Johnson said inflation fears were baseless. The final reading of the IHS Markit/CIPS composite Purchasing Managers’ Index showed that companies increased prices at the fastest pace on record, following shortages of staff, raw materials and transport.


The pound has yet to react on Brexit risks after the UK told the European Union on Monday it would  “trigger safeguard measures in their divorce deal if the bloc failed to agree to changes to smooth trade with Northern Ireland.” Speaking at the Conservatives' annual conference in Manchester, Brexit minister David Frost stated that "Without an agreed solution soon, we will need to act, using the Article 16 safeguard mechanism, to address the impact the protocol is having on Northern Ireland." The EU is putting together a package of measures to ease the passage of goods from Britain to Northern Ireland, using flexibilities in the protocol, which will announce next week.

Tighter policy could weaken pound

Goldman Sachs Asset Management has said that tighter policy could weaken Sterling. The firm’s strategist for the global fixed income team said that high inflation and energy prices, and Brexit implications could further complicate the inflation outlook. Fears of higher inflation combined with the ongoing supply-chain crisis and an end to the government’s furlough program have worried investors who believe the BoE may choose to raise interest rates sooner than necessary, risking economic recovery.

Other firms and financial analysts are less concerned as challenges are not seen as dangerous and are merely transitory. They don’t believe that the Bank will be forced into a dangerously fast pace of tightening.

What to watch

A key indicator to watch is the UK's labour market as unemployment is expected to increase in October since the government's job support scheme ended on the 30th of September and furloughed staff might not be able to return to their old jobs. The furlough scheme which started in March 2020, supported 11.6 million jobs across the UK and government figures suggest that around a million people were still on furlough when it ended.

If unemployment is lower than expectations, the consensus is that the Bank could move towards a rate hike as a strong labour market will increase the potential for wage rises which push inflation higher.

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